110 R

110 Richter

This variety results from the crossbreeding between Vitis berlandieri cv. Rességuier n°2 and Vitis rupestris cv. Martin.

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Genetic origin

The genetic origin of the variety is also indicated when known thanks to hybridiser data or genetic analysis either published or obtained by the teams at INRAE in Montpellier (UMR AGAP) and at the Vassal-Montpellier Grapevine Biological Resources Centre (CRB-Vigne).

This variety results from the crossbreeding between Vitis berlandieri cv. Rességuier n°2 and Vitis rupestris cv. Martin.

Name of the variety in France (and usual name)

The rootstock variety is presented by the abbreviation or name under which it appears in the national catalogue and which is also the most commonly used in French grapevine nurseries and French viticulture. There is no official list of synonyms for rootstock varieties.

110 R

Breeder/breeder and year obtained

The name of the breeder and/or selector is indicated, as is the year in which the variety was bred.

Franz Richter

Estimated surface area of the French vineyard grafted with this rootstock and main regions of use

The figures are estimated based on the computerised vineyard register and bibliographical data.

130 000 ha . Languedoc-Roussillon, Midi-Pyrénées, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Rhône-Alpes, Corsica.

Evolution of cultivated areas in France

The figures provided are taken from vineyard land registers (IVCC, ONIVIT, ONIVINS), general agricultural censuses (SCEES-INSEE) and the current computerised vineyard register (DGDDI, FAM). Regional vine planting data is available on the following site: https://visionet.franceagrimer.fr/Pages/DonneesInteractivesDocs.aspx?sousmenu=observatoire%20de%20la%20viticulture.

Year
ha

1945

16

1955

108

1965

254

1975

526

1985

376

1995

352

2005

522

2015

377

Eléments de description ampélographique

Only the main ampelographic elements enabling the rootstocks to be characterised and identified are provided. They are described according to the ampelographic descriptor code recognised by the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV), the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV), the Community Plant Variety Office (OCVV) and Bioversity International (for more information, see the "Ampelographic glossary" menu). The photographs of buds, flowers and adult leaves were taken indoors by the INRAE team at Domaine de Vassal from material sampled from the ampelographic collections of the Vassal-Montpellier Grapevine Biological Resources Centre. Note: the scale of the photos is not the same for the three organs shown. The photos of buds have been reduced (x 0.5 approx.), as have those of the adult leaves (x 0.25 approx.), while those of the flowers have been enlarged (x 4 approx.).

The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot that is half opened, with a low density of prostrate hairs,
- the shiny and reddish young leaves,
- the shoots with a bushy and erect bearing, a ribbed contour, a circular or slightly elliptic section, a striated surface, a moderate to strong anthocyanin coloration and no erect and prostrate hairs,
- the small to medium, kidney-shaped, shiny, entire adult leaves, with a widely open U-shaped petiole sinus, a strong anthocyanin coloration of veins, medium teeth with straight sides, a slightly blistered leaf blade, gutter-folded towards the upper side of the blade, and on the lower side of the leaves, no or a very low density of erect and prostrate hairs,
- the male flowers,
- the browny grey or browny red woody shoots, with no erect and prostrate hairs.

Genetic profile

The genetic profile of the variety is provided for the 9 microsatellite markers (or SSR markers) selected under the European programme GrapeGen06 (http://www.eu-vitis.de/index.php) and by the OIV. The absolute size values of the alleles may vary slightly from one laboratory to another, but the relative differences between the two alleles of one single microsatellite are constant. The genetic analyses were conducted by the INRAE Montpellier team (UMR AGAP) and the IFV’s Plant Material Centre.

Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32

Allele 1

135

232

231

236

196

244

236

218

253

Allele 2

141

265

257

262

214

260

262

233

253

Resistance to soil pests

The degree of tolerance to the root form of phylloxera and resistance to nematodes (Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria), to Agrobacterium vitis (the bacterium responsible for burls) and to certain soil fungi is stated on the basis of observations or bibliographical data.

110 R is very highly tolerant to the root form of phylloxera, but its resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria nematodes is only average. It would also be quite resistant to Phytophtora cinnamomi.

Aptitudes for vegetative multiplication

The level of wood production by the rootstock strains is stated (source: ENTAV-ONIVINS survey of grapevine nurseries, April 2001). The suitability for cleaning, disbudding, cutting and grafting is also specified. Further details are provided if the rootstock variety requires special precautions during grafting and layering.

The length of 110 R is medium with a fairly large diameter. The growth of lateral shoot buds is fairly high and the wood production is low to moderate (30 000 to 60 000 m/ha) with sometimes a certain proportion of dry canes. Care needs to be taken to make sure that the canes are properly lignified, and then, the canes must be preserved under the right conditions. In mother plantations, 110 R is sensitive to excess humidity in the soil. This rootsotck has a low to moderate cuttings rooting capacity and a moderate grafting aptitude. This root stock sometimes requires a longer stratification period and a possibly slightly more substantial hormoning.

Clonal selection in France

All certified clones are listed, as are the surface areas of the mother vine of clones that are propagated. For the moment, clonal selection of rootstock is conducted solely for sanitary purposes.

In France, the 15 certified 110 R clones carry the numbers 6, 7, 100, 118, 119, 139, 140, 151, 152, 163, 164, 180, 206, 237 and 756. Among those, the clones multiplied are:
- clone No. 6: 2 ha 54 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 7: 17 ha 56 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 118: 6 ha 17 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 139: 1 ha 44 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 140: 1 ha 70 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 151: 115 ha 71 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 152: 60 ha 32 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 164: 1 ha 45 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 180: 43 ha 63 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 237: 92 ha 57 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 756: 39 ha 31 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017.

Datas are extracted from: Les chiffres de la pépinière viticole, 2017, Datas and assesment of FranceAgriMer, may 2018.

Adaptation to the environment

This paragraph provides information on the behaviour of the rootstock variety in relation to the structure, texture and composition of the soil, its mineral content and the soil’s pH. It also states the behaviour of the rootstock when faced with an excess or lack of water during the vegetative period. Chlorosis Iron chlorosis is related to problems of iron assimilation due to low iron content and/or high carbonate content in soil. Total calcium carbonate content alone gives only a partial idea of the chlorosis-inducing power of the soil. The active calcium carbonate content corresponds to the percentage of carbonate present in the fine fraction of the soil (clays, fine silts). Depending on the characteristics of the parent rock and its geological origin, this represents a variable percentage of the total calcium carbonate. The chlorotic power index (IPC) is a calculation which takes into account the active calcium carbonate content and the easily extractible iron content of the soil. These three values provide an insight into the risk of chlorosis and allow growers to choose the most suitable rootstock variety accordingly. Tylosis and apoplexy These apoplexy phenomena are linked to problems of water circulation through the plant when evapotranspiration is high (dry wind following heavy rainfall in the summer season) and the absorption of water through the roots is limited. In this case, the high pressure in the vessels causes air bubbles (cavitation) and tyloses (invagination of the membrane of neighbouring cells in the vessels) to form, which causes a slowing of sap circulation and water stress in the leaves.

110 R is moderately adapted to limestone and its resistance to iron chlorosis is variable depending on the grafts used. It is can resist up to 17% of "active" limestone and to an IPC of 30. However the threshold is actually only 5 to 7% when Syrah is grafted onto 110 R (and to a lesser extent with Viognier). This rootstock is very well adapted to drought but is very sensitive to water excess. It is particularly adapted to dry, poor, stony, with no or very little limestone soils, such as schist soils or ancient terraces.

Interaction with the graft and production objectives

The rootstock may interact with the characteristics of the graft in terms of precocity of the vegetative cycle and the growth and development of the branches, as well as yield factors (fertility and berry size). In some cases, the risks of incompatibility or poor affinity of the rootstock variety with a graft variety are specified.

110 R confers a strong vigor. This rootstock tends to induce a good fertility and delay the growth cycle and the maturation. It can sometimes favor coulure, particularly with Ugni blanc. 110 R works very well with Cabernet-Sauvignon, Caladoc, Carignan, Grenache, Marselan, Mourvèdre, Muscat à petits grains blancs, Muscat d’Alexandrie, Tempranillo and Vermentino. On the other hand, given the risk of chlorosis, the association with Syrah must be avoided when the "active" limestone content goes over 5%, since the risk of declining is incresed with this association. Cases of incomptability have also been noticed with Pinot.

Bibliographic references

The rootstock may interact with the characteristics of the graft in terms of precocity of the vegetative cycle and the growth and development of the branches, as well as yield factors (fertility and berry size). In some cases, the risks of incompatibility or poor affinity of the rootstock variety with a graft variety are specified.

- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Cépages et vignobles de France, tome 1. P. Galet, 1988, Ed. Dehan, Montpellier, France.