Ampelographic glossary

  • Adult leaf


    Leaf situated on the middle third of the main shoot of the year, best observed between the stages of fruit set and veraison.

  • Anthocyanin pigmentation


    Pink, red or purple colouring that may be related to the youth of the organ or tissue concerned (e.g. young leaf, herbaceous shoot, petiole, vein).

  • Berry – Seedless


    Grape berry with no seeds, or rudimentary seeds which are imperceptible when chewing.

  • Berry – Aromas


    - Foxy: aroma of berries of the V. labrusca grape variety and most of its hybrids, reminiscent of wild strawberry.

    - Herbaceous: aromas of berries reminiscent of unripe vegetables.

    - Muscat-like: berry aroma with floral (rose) and fruity notes (litchis)

  • Berry – Teinturier


    Term used for varieties with berries that have a colored pulp.

  • Bud scales


    Bracts protecting the bud before it opens.

  • Blade


    Main part of the leaf, situated at the end of the petiole.

  • Blade – Veins


    - Primary veins: the 5 veins departing from the petiolar point.

    - Secondary veins: veins of secondary order flowing directly from the 5 primary veins.

    - Subordinate veins: tertiary and quaternary veins.

  • Blade – Lobe


    Portion of the blade situated between 2 sinuses.

  • Blade – Veins


    - Main veins: the 5 veins starting from the petiolar point.

    - Secondary ribs: ribs of order 2, inserting directly onto the 5 main ribs.

    - Ribs of lower orders: ribs of order 3 or 4.

  • Blade – Profile


    Way in which the blade naturally occupies space.

    - Involute: turned or rolled towards the upper surface of the blade.

    - Keeled: like a half-open book.

    - Revolute: blade turned or rolled towards the lower surface of the blade.

    - Crisped: blade profile both involute and revolute in disorganised fashion.

  • Blade – Relief


    - Blister: micro-relief or bump on the blade between the tertiary and quaternary veins.

    - Goffer: contraction or depression in the surface of the blade between the primary and secondary veins.

    - Smooth: not rough, uniform.

    - Hammered: refers to slight puckering of the blade, flattened in appearance.

    - Undulate: relief between the primary and/or secondary veins running parallel to those veins.

  • Blade – Sinus


    Indentations around the blade margin with a clear interruption of serration.

  • Blade – Lateral sinuses


    - Lower lateral sinus: indentation of the blade with clear interruption of serration, located between the 2 primary lateral veins.

    - Upper lateral sinus: indentation of the blade with clear interruption of serration, located between the primary central vein and the adjacent primary lateral vein.

    - Secondary lateral sinuses: indentation of the blade with clear interruption of serration, located between 2 secondary veins.

  • Blade – Petiolar sinus


    Break in the blade where the petiole is attached. Degree of opening:

    - Open: the lobes of the sinus flare outwards and do not overlap.

    - Closed: the lobes of the sinus touch (or slightly overlap) one another.

    - Overlapping lobes: the lobes of the sinus clearly overlap.

    - Shape of the base:

    - U-shaped

    - V-shaped

    - Bracket-shaped

    - Particularity

    - With one tooth on one of the margins

    - Base delimited by the primary lateral vein (“naked”)

    - Petiolar point: point of attachment of the 5 primary veins and the blade on the petiole.

  • Bearing


    Natural direction of shoot growth in the absence of trellising.

  • Bloom


    Dull waxy layer covering certain organs (berry, herbaceous shoot).

  • Cluster – Wing


    Lateral ramification of the main cluster and distinct from it.

  • Cluster – Density

  • Cluster – Size


    Size, scale (cf. manual).

  • Cluster – Pedicel


    Stem bearing the berry starting from the point of attachment to the berry to the first ramification of the stalk.

  • Cluster – Peduncle


    Main stalk joining the cluster to the shoot from the point of attachment on the shoot to the first ramification of the stalk.

  • Cluster – Stem


    The pedicels, ramifications and peduncle of the cluster considered as a whole.

  • Cane


    Lignified shoot.

  • Flower – Sex


    - Female flower: flower with a functional pistil and non-functional reflex stamens (curving downwards).

    - Hermaphrodite flower: flower with functional pistil and stamens.

    - Male flower: flower with functional stamens but no pistil (or rudimentary, non-functional).

  • Herbaceous (organ)



  • Herbaceous shoot


    Young branch before lignification.

  • Inflorescence


    Group of flower buds which, after fecundation, give rise to a cluster.

  • Lenticels


    Small, brown spots that may occur on various organs (shoot, berry), which are suberised stomata (corky).

  • Phenology


    Study of plant development stages (e.g. bud burst, flowering veraison, ripeness).

    - Bud burst: phenological stage corresponding to the opening of the bud scales, revealing the bud (stage B on Baggiolini scale).

    - Flowering: phenological stage corresponding to the opening and fall of the floral calyptras (stage I on Baggiolini scale).

    - Veraison: phenological stage corresponding to the softening of the berries just before they change colour (stage M on Baggiolini scale).

    - Maturity: phenological stage corresponding to the optimal sugar content produced by photosynthesis with no loss of berry volume, and the deliberately chosen period of harvest (stage N on Baggiolini scale).

  • Shoot – Lateral


    Secondary ramification of the shoot from a lateral bud.

  • Shoot – Sides


    - Dorsal side: side of the shoot situated on the side of the lateral buds and the foliage.

    - Ventral side: side of the shoot situated on the side of the latent buds.

  • Shoot – Pith


    Non-compact, central tissue of the shoot or branch (or lignified root), more or less abundant and discontinued at the nodes.

  • Shoot – Node


    Swelling of the shoot at the place where the buds, leaf petioles and tendrils or bunches arise.

  • Shoot – Relief


    - Striated: shoot presenting fine, longitudinal grooves on its surface.

    - Ribbed: shoot or branch presenting longitudinal ribs or grooves in relief.

  • Subcontinuous tendrils


    Presence of tendrils on at least three successive nodes on the shoot.

  • Teeth


    Peripheral endings of veins around the blade margin.

  • Teeth – Shape


    - Concave: with rounded edges curving towards the interior of the leaf surface.

    - Convex: with rounded edges curving towards the outside (ogival).

    - Straight: with straight edges.

    - Mucronate: the teeth terminate at the apex of the vein, forming a small, clearly visible point.

    - Curly: the teeth are positioned alternately upwards and downwards around the blade margin.

  • Tip of the young shoot


    End of the young shoot situated above the first detached leaf, best observed at the time of flowering.

    - Open: the very first young leaves grow outwards and the apex of the shoot is entirely visible.

    - Closed or semi-closed: the apex of the shoot is covered or partially covered by the first young leaves.

    - Globular: enveloping, pouch-like character of the first young leaves.

  • Tendril


    Organ which twines and attaches the vine to a neighbouring support.

  • Villosity


    The hairs (or trichomes) covering a surface.

    - Prostate hairs: long, flexuous hairs spread across the surface of the organ on which they occur.

    - Erect hairs: short, colourless, shiny hairs lying perpendicular to the surface of the organ on which they occur.

  • Young leaves


    3rd to 5th leaves clearly detached or separated from the tip of the shoot.

  • Young leaves – Color


    - Bronze: brown in colour.

    - Copper: brownish-red in colour

    - Piping anthocyanin coloration: presence of prostate hairs with bright pink to red pigmentation around the edge of the apex or of the young leaves.