101-14 MGt

101-14 Millardet et de Grasset

This variety results from the crossbreeding between Vitis riparia and Vitis rupestris.

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Genetic origin

The genetic origin of the variety is also indicated when known thanks to hybridiser data or genetic analysis either published or obtained by the teams at INRAE in Montpellier (UMR AGAP) and at the Vassal-Montpellier Grapevine Biological Resources Centre (CRB-Vigne).

This variety results from the crossbreeding between Vitis riparia and Vitis rupestris.

Name of the variety in France (and usual name)

The rootstock variety is presented by the abbreviation or name under which it appears in the national catalogue and which is also the most commonly used in French grapevine nurseries and French viticulture. There is no official list of synonyms for rootstock varieties.

101-14 MGt

Breeder/breeder and year obtained

The name of the breeder and/or selector is indicated, as is the year in which the variety was bred.

Alexis Millardet and Charles de Grasset

Estimated surface area of the French vineyard grafted with this rootstock and main regions of use

The figures are estimated based on the computerised vineyard register and bibliographical data.

28 000 ha . Aquitaine, Midi-Pyrénées, Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Rhône-Alpes, Val de Loire.

Evolution of cultivated areas in France

The figures provided are taken from vineyard land registers (IVCC, ONIVIT, ONIVINS), general agricultural censuses (SCEES-INSEE) and the current computerised vineyard register (DGDDI, FAM). Regional vine planting data is available on the following site: https://visionet.franceagrimer.fr/Pages/DonneesInteractivesDocs.aspx?sousmenu=observatoire%20de%20la%20viticulture.

Year
ha

1945

35

1955

54

1965

50

1975

70

1985

53

1995

82

2005

104

2015

105

Eléments de description ampélographique

Only the main ampelographic elements enabling the rootstocks to be characterised and identified are provided. They are described according to the ampelographic descriptor code recognised by the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV), the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV), the Community Plant Variety Office (OCVV) and Bioversity International (for more information, see the "Ampelographic glossary" menu). The photographs of buds, flowers and adult leaves were taken indoors by the INRAE team at Domaine de Vassal from material sampled from the ampelographic collections of the Vassal-Montpellier Grapevine Biological Resources Centre. Note: the scale of the photos is not the same for the three organs shown. The photos of buds have been reduced (x 0.5 approx.), as have those of the adult leaves (x 0.25 approx.), while those of the flowers have been enlarged (x 4 approx.).

The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot that is completely closed, with a medium density of erect hairs and no prostrate hairs,
- the bronzed young leaves, with well developed stipules at the base of the petioles,
- the shoots with a semi-erect or horizontal bearing, a striated surface, a circular section and a low density of erect hairs and no prostrate hairs on the nodes,
- the medium to large, wedge- or kidney-shaped, entire adult leaves, with a widely open U-shaped petiole sinus, a smooth, slightly undulate leaf blade between the veins, long teeth compared to their width with straight sides or with one side slightly convex and one side slightly concave (the three terminal teeth of the central main vein and the two main adjacent lateral veins are longer and more developed), and on the lower side of the leaves, no prostrate hairs and a medium density of erect hairs, more particularly at the bifurcation of the veins,
- the female flowers,
- the very small, round-shaped berries, with a blue black skin,
- the long, browny yellow or beige woody shoots.

Genetic profile

The genetic profile of the variety is provided for the 9 microsatellite markers (or SSR markers) selected under the European programme GrapeGen06 (http://www.eu-vitis.de/index.php) and by the OIV. The absolute size values of the alleles may vary slightly from one laboratory to another, but the relative differences between the two alleles of one single microsatellite are constant. The genetic analyses were conducted by the INRAE Montpellier team (UMR AGAP) and the IFV’s Plant Material Centre.

Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32

Allele 1

131

253

243

236

173

256

236

241

259

Allele 2

141

263

251

238

190

258

238

249

259

Resistance to soil pests

The degree of tolerance to the root form of phylloxera and resistance to nematodes (Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria), to Agrobacterium vitis (the bacterium responsible for burls) and to certain soil fungi is stated on the basis of observations or bibliographical data.

101-14 MGt is very tolerant to the root form of phylloxera and to Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria nematodes.

Aptitudes for vegetative multiplication

The level of wood production by the rootstock strains is stated (source: ENTAV-ONIVINS survey of grapevine nurseries, April 2001). The suitability for cleaning, disbudding, cutting and grafting is also specified. Further details are provided if the rootstock variety requires special precautions during grafting and layering.

101-14 MGt has long internodes with medium diameter. The growth of lateral shoot buds is also moderate and the cleanin and disbudding is a little difficult. 101-14 MGt wood production can be variable depending on the conditions (30 000 to 80 000 m/ha). The canes are easily preserved and this rootstock has good cuttinf and grafting capacities.

Clonal selection in France

All certified clones are listed, as are the surface areas of the mother vine of clones that are propagated. For the moment, clonal selection of rootstock is conducted solely for sanitary purposes.

In France, the 4 certified 101-14 MGt clones carry the numbers: 3, 759, 1034 and 1043. Among those, the clones multiplied are:
- clone No. 3: 23ha 24 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 759: 42 ha 70 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 1034: 13 ha 60 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 1043: 26 ha 45 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017.

Datas are extracted from: Les chiffres de la pépinière viticole, 2017, Datas and assesment of FranceAgriMer, may 2018.

Adaptation to the environment

This paragraph provides information on the behaviour of the rootstock variety in relation to the structure, texture and composition of the soil, its mineral content and the soil’s pH. It also states the behaviour of the rootstock when faced with an excess or lack of water during the vegetative period. Chlorosis Iron chlorosis is related to problems of iron assimilation due to low iron content and/or high carbonate content in soil. Total calcium carbonate content alone gives only a partial idea of the chlorosis-inducing power of the soil. The active calcium carbonate content corresponds to the percentage of carbonate present in the fine fraction of the soil (clays, fine silts). Depending on the characteristics of the parent rock and its geological origin, this represents a variable percentage of the total calcium carbonate. The chlorotic power index (IPC) is a calculation which takes into account the active calcium carbonate content and the easily extractible iron content of the soil. These three values provide an insight into the risk of chlorosis and allow growers to choose the most suitable rootstock variety accordingly. Tylosis and apoplexy These apoplexy phenomena are linked to problems of water circulation through the plant when evapotranspiration is high (dry wind following heavy rainfall in the summer season) and the absorption of water through the roots is limited. In this case, the high pressure in the vessels causes air bubbles (cavitation) and tyloses (invagination of the membrane of neighbouring cells in the vessels) to form, which causes a slowing of sap circulation and water stress in the leaves.

101-14 MGt is ot very tolerant to chlorosis. It only resists up to 20% of "total" limestone, 9% of "active" limestone and an ICP of 10. 101-14 MGt is also fairly sensitive to soil acidity along with copper toxicity and boron deficiency. This rootstock is sensitive to drought but is fairly well adapted to humidity. It has a ramified root system similar to that of Riparia Gloire de Montpellier. 101-14 MGt absorbs well magnesium and is adapted to fairly deep, clay soils with very little or no limestone and a sufficient water input.

Interaction with the graft and production objectives

The rootstock may interact with the characteristics of the graft in terms of precocity of the vegetative cycle and the growth and development of the branches, as well as yield factors (fertility and berry size). In some cases, the risks of incompatibility or poor affinity of the rootstock variety with a graft variety are specified.

101-14 MGt usually has a very good affinity with the grafts. The first growth of plants is fast but the vigor confered is nevertheless limited. Thus, this rootstock contributes to manage the plant growth and has an influence on the earliness of the vegetative cycle. 101-14 MGt induces moderate yields with an often a lower average berry weight compared to those obtained with other rootstocks. The varieties grafted onto 101-14 MGt generate balanced, quality products with good maturity and the associations with Cabernet franc, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Chenin, Colombard, Gamay, Grenache, Petit Verdot, Sauvignon, Semillon and Syrah are appreciated.

Bibliographic references

The rootstock may interact with the characteristics of the graft in terms of precocity of the vegetative cycle and the growth and development of the branches, as well as yield factors (fertility and berry size). In some cases, the risks of incompatibility or poor affinity of the rootstock variety with a graft variety are specified.

- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Cépages et vignobles de France, tome 1. P. Galet, 1988, Ed. Dehan, Montpellier, France.