Fercal

Based on genetic analyses carried out in Montpellier, this variety results from the crossbreeding of Berlandieri Colombard number 1 B (from a crossbreeding between Vitis berlandieri and Vitis vinifera cv. Ugni blanc) and 31 Richter (from the crossbreeding between Vitis berlandieri cv. Rességuier number 2 and Vitis longii cv. Novo-mexicana).

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Genetic origin

The genetic origin of the variety is also indicated when known thanks to hybridiser data or genetic analysis either published or obtained by the teams at INRAE in Montpellier (UMR AGAP) and at the Vassal-Montpellier Grapevine Biological Resources Centre (CRB-Vigne).

Based on genetic analyses carried out in Montpellier, this variety results from the crossbreeding of Berlandieri Colombard number 1 B (from a crossbreeding between Vitis berlandieri and Vitis vinifera cv. Ugni blanc) and 31 Richter (from the crossbreeding between Vitis berlandieri cv. Rességuier number 2 and Vitis longii cv. Novo-mexicana).

Breeder/breeder and year obtained

The name of the breeder and/or selector is indicated, as is the year in which the variety was bred.

INRA

Estimated surface area of the French vineyard grafted with this rootstock and main regions of use

The figures are estimated based on the computerised vineyard register and bibliographical data.

30 000 ha . Champagne, Aquitaine, Charentes, Alsace, Midi-Pyrénées, Val de Loire, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Languedoc-Roussillon, Rhône-Alpes.

Evolution of cultivated areas in France

The figures provided are taken from vineyard land registers (IVCC, ONIVIT, ONIVINS), general agricultural censuses (SCEES-INSEE) and the current computerised vineyard register (DGDDI, FAM). Regional vine planting data is available on the following site: https://visionet.franceagrimer.fr/Pages/DonneesInteractivesDocs.aspx?sousmenu=observatoire%20de%20la%20viticulture.

Year
ha

1975

18

1985

40

1995

67

2005

192

2015

240

Eléments de description ampélographique

Only the main ampelographic elements enabling the rootstocks to be characterised and identified are provided. They are described according to the ampelographic descriptor code recognised by the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV), the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV), the Community Plant Variety Office (OCVV) and Bioversity International (for more information, see the "Ampelographic glossary" menu). The photographs of buds, flowers and adult leaves were taken indoors by the INRAE team at Domaine de Vassal from material sampled from the ampelographic collections of the Vassal-Montpellier Grapevine Biological Resources Centre. Note: the scale of the photos is not the same for the three organs shown. The photos of buds have been reduced (x 0.5 approx.), as have those of the adult leaves (x 0.25 approx.), while those of the flowers have been enlarged (x 4 approx.).

The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot that is half open, with a piping anthocyanin coloration and a very high density of prostrate hairs, 
- the young leaves with a very high density of prostrate hairs, 
- the shoots with a ribbed surface, a circular section or slightly elliptic and a high density of erect and prostrate hairs, 
- the wedge- or kidney-shaped, entire adult leaves, with an involute leaf blade, an open U-shaped petiole sinus, short teeth compared to their width,
- the female flowers,
- the small, round-shaped berries, with a blue black skin,
- the woody shoots with a medium density of erect hairs.

Genetic profile

The genetic profile of the variety is provided for the 9 microsatellite markers (or SSR markers) selected under the European programme GrapeGen06 (http://www.eu-vitis.de/index.php) and by the OIV. The absolute size values of the alleles may vary slightly from one laboratory to another, but the relative differences between the two alleles of one single microsatellite are constant. The genetic analyses were conducted by the INRAE Montpellier team (UMR AGAP) and the IFV’s Plant Material Centre.

Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32

Allele 1

141

234

231

236

184

246

236

218

243

Allele 2

141

261

251

254

220

258

254

243

243

Resistance to soil pests

The degree of tolerance to the root form of phylloxera and resistance to nematodes (Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria), to Agrobacterium vitis (the bacterium responsible for burls) and to certain soil fungi is stated on the basis of observations or bibliographical data.

Fercal is very highly tolerant to the root form of phylloxera. It is also fairly tolerant to Meloidogyne arenaria and Meloidogyne incognita nematodes, but is only moderately resistant to Meloidogyne hapla nematodes.

Aptitudes for vegetative multiplication

The level of wood production by the rootstock strains is stated (source: ENTAV-ONIVINS survey of grapevine nurseries, April 2001). The suitability for cleaning, disbudding, cutting and grafting is also specified. Further details are provided if the rootstock variety requires special precautions during grafting and layering.

The length and diameter of the internodes are medium and the growth of lateral shoot buds is significant. Fercal wood production is moderate (30 000 to 60 000 m/ha) and the canes must be conserved under very good conditions to avoid any dehydration. Fercal has a very good cutting capacity and a moderate grafting aptitude, with a substantial wood pith in the canes. Fercal canes need to be well rehydrated before use. Hormoning is not necessary and must be moderate if performed. The stratification time necessary for this rootstock is relatively short.

Clonal selection in France

All certified clones are listed, as are the surface areas of the mother vine of clones that are propagated. For the moment, clonal selection of rootstock is conducted solely for sanitary purposes.

In France, the only certified Fercal clone carries the number 242 and it is multiplied on 244 ha 16 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017.

Datas are extracted from: Les chiffres de la pépinière viticole, 2017, Datas and assesment of FranceAgriMer, may 2018.

Adaptation to the environment

This paragraph provides information on the behaviour of the rootstock variety in relation to the structure, texture and composition of the soil, its mineral content and the soil’s pH. It also states the behaviour of the rootstock when faced with an excess or lack of water during the vegetative period. Chlorosis Iron chlorosis is related to problems of iron assimilation due to low iron content and/or high carbonate content in soil. Total calcium carbonate content alone gives only a partial idea of the chlorosis-inducing power of the soil. The active calcium carbonate content corresponds to the percentage of carbonate present in the fine fraction of the soil (clays, fine silts). Depending on the characteristics of the parent rock and its geological origin, this represents a variable percentage of the total calcium carbonate. The chlorotic power index (IPC) is a calculation which takes into account the active calcium carbonate content and the easily extractible iron content of the soil. These three values provide an insight into the risk of chlorosis and allow growers to choose the most suitable rootstock variety accordingly. Tylosis and apoplexy These apoplexy phenomena are linked to problems of water circulation through the plant when evapotranspiration is high (dry wind following heavy rainfall in the summer season) and the absorption of water through the roots is limited. In this case, the high pressure in the vessels causes air bubbles (cavitation) and tyloses (invagination of the membrane of neighbouring cells in the vessels) to form, which causes a slowing of sap circulation and water stress in the leaves.

The main feature of Fercal is its very high resistance to chlorosis and its adaptation to limestone soils. It resists up to 60% of "total" limestone, 40% of "active" limestone and to an ICP of 120. This rootstock tolerates fairly well humid spring conditions and its resistance to drought is moderate to good if the roots are sufficiently deep. Fercal has some difficulties to absorb magnesium in the soil, particularly with an excessive potassium fertilization. The varieties grafted can show some magnesium deficiency symptoms with this rootstock.

Interaction with the graft and production objectives

The rootstock may interact with the characteristics of the graft in terms of precocity of the vegetative cycle and the growth and development of the branches, as well as yield factors (fertility and berry size). In some cases, the risks of incompatibility or poor affinity of the rootstock variety with a graft variety are specified.

Fercal shows a good affinity with graft varieties. The growth and fruit set speed given by Fercal is good. The vigor confered by rootstock is moderate to high. Its influence on the vegetative cycle is moderate. In terms of fertility and yields, Fercal is balanced and the grafts produce good quality products. It is particularly well suited to Syrah.

Bibliographic references

The rootstock may interact with the characteristics of the graft in terms of precocity of the vegetative cycle and the growth and development of the branches, as well as yield factors (fertility and berry size). In some cases, the risks of incompatibility or poor affinity of the rootstock variety with a graft variety are specified.

- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Cépages et vignobles de France, tome 1. P. Galet, 1988, Ed. Dehan, Montpellier, France.