Chenin

B

Wine grape variety.

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Origin

The geographical origin of the variety is specified or, if this is not possible, the area in which it is traditionally cultivated. The genetic origin of the variety is also indicated whenever it is known from hybridiser data or from genetic analyses published or obtained by the teams at INRAE in Montpellier (UMR AGAP) and Vassal-Montpellier Grapevine Biological Resources Centre (CRB-Vigne).

This variety is originally from the Loire Valley and seemingly from Anjou.

Use

This information indicates the normal and statutory use for the grapes.

Wine grape variety.

Name of the variety in France

Name under which the variety is officially registered in the catalogue of grapevine varieties in France and under which it may be propagated and disseminated.

Chenin

Synonymy

Recognised alternative names that may be used to identify the propagation material of the variety in France or in other member countries of the European Union.

In Bulagria, Chenin is officially designated as "Shanin". This synonym is officially recognized in France regarding plant propagation material.

Regulatory data

This information indicates on which list the variety is registered (A or B), whether it is classified for wine grapes, and in which member countries of the European Union the variety is also officially registered (for more information, see the "Legislation"menu).

In France, Chenin is officially listed in the "Catalogue of vine varieties" on the A list and classified. This variety is also listed in the catalogues of other Member States of the European Union: Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain.

Evolution of cultivated areas in France

The figures provided are taken from vineyard land registers (IVCC, ONIVIT, ONIVINS), general agricultural censuses (SCEES-INSEE) and the current computerised vineyard register (DGDDI, FAM). Regional vine planting data is available on the following site: https://visionet.franceagrimer.fr/Pages/DonneesInteractivesDocs.aspx?sousmenu=observatoire%20de%20la%20viticulture.

Year
ha

1958

16594

1968

14199

1979

9552

1988

9054

1998

10042

2008

9777

2018

10085

Description elements

Only the principal ampelographic elements enabling the varieties to be characterised and identified are provided. They are presented according to the descriptor code recognised by the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV), the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV), the Community Plant Variety Office (OCVV) and Bioversity International (for more information, see the "Ampelographic glossary" menu). The photographs of leaves and grapes were taken in natural conditions, on the vine, in very similar situations in terms of growing conditions (sandy soil, Mediterranean coast): - Domaine de l'Espiguette (IFV), Le Grau du Roi (Gard), - Domaine de Vassal (INRAE), Marseillan (Hérault), - La Gaillarde Campus (Institut Agro | Montpellier SupAgro), Montpellier (Hérault). Only a few photographs, including the tips of bunches, were taken in other conditions.

The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot with a very high density of prostrate hairs,
- the young leaves with bronze spots,
- the adult leaves, with three or five lobes, a slightly open petiole sinus or with slightly overlapping lobes, medium teeth with convex sides, a strong anthocyanin coloration of veins, a blistered leaf blade, and on the lower side of the leaves, a medium density of prostrate hairs,
- the ellipsoid berries.

Genetic profile

The genetic profile of the variety is provided for the 9 microsatellite markers (or SSR markers) selected under the European programme GrapeGen06 (http://www.eu-vitis.de/index.php) and by the OIV. The absolute size values of the alleles may vary slightly from one laboratory to another, but the relative differences between the two alleles of one single microsatellite are constant. The genetic analyses were conducted by the INRAE Montpellier team (UMR AGAP) and the IFV’s Plant Material Centre.

Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32

Allele 1

131

225

239

172

188

248

240

233

255

Allele 2

149

229

257

186

194

252

248

247

271

Cultivation and agronomic skills

The data on suitability are the result of field observations or, if none are available, of bibliography mining and the study of bibliographic references.

Chenin is a vigorous and fertile variety whose production potential depends a lot on agronomic soil fertility where it is grown. It is susceptible to heat. Budburst is early. After a spring frost, the secondary buds demonstrate very low fertility.

Susceptibility to Diseases and Pests

These remarks are also the result of field observations or, if none are available, of bibliography mining and study of bibliographic references.

Chenin is particularly susceptible to grey rot, powdery mildew and wood diseases. It resists better to downy mildew, black rot and to anthracnose.

Phenology

The growth stages indicated are the result of obsrvations made at the Domaine de Vassal Estate where the set of these varieties form a collection. The results are indicated compared to the Chasselas vine variety as a reference in order to make comparisons between years and different sites. As such, for information purposes, the dates for the Chasselas B growth stage at Domaine de Vassal are as follows: - Bud burst, 21 March (average over 50 years) - Grape maturity, 14 August (average over 50 years)

Bud burst: 1 day before Chasselas.
Grape maturity: mid-season, 3 weeks to 3 weeks and a half after Chasselas.

Technological potential

The size of grape clusters and berries indicated are based on the following scales: - Wine grape varieties Size : Very small Bunch (g) : ≤ 100 Berry (g) : 1 - Table grape varieties Bunch (g) : 150 Berry (g) : 2 - Wine grape varieties Size : Small Bunch (g) : 100 - 200 Berry (g) : 1,5 - 2 - Table grape varieties Bunch (g) : 150 - 250 Berry (g) : 2 - 3,5 - Wine grape varieties Size : Moderate Bunch (g) : 200 - 250 Berry (g) : 2 - 2,5 - Table grape varieties Bunch (g) : 250 - 400 Berry (g) : 3,5 - 5,5 - Wine grape varieties Size : Large Bunch (g) : 250 - 400 Berry (g) : 2,5 - 3,5 - Table grape varieties Bunch (g) : 400 - 700 Berry (g) : 5,5 - 8 - Wine grape varieties Size : Very large Bunch (g) : 400 Berry (g) : 3,5 - Table grape varieties Bunch (g) : 700 Berry (g) : 8 Remarks concerning the characteristics of the wines are generally based on tastings organised by juries of professionals.

The bunches are medium to large and the berries are small to medium in size. Depending on the growing conditions and the terroirs (limestone, schists) this variety can be used to produce sparkling wines, white wines, or liqueur wines. Acidity potential is high and the wines produced are elegant, generally quite lively, with aromas of honey.

Clonal selection in France

In this section, the list of certified clones is given. Information on clone conservatories is also provided.

The fourteen certified Chenin clones carry the numbers 220, 278, 416, 417, 624, 880, 982, 1018, 1206, 1207, 1208, 1209, 1286 and 1348.

More than 300 clones are planted in a conservatory in the wine-growing region of Anjou since 1996. An other conservatory-collection of fiften or so clones was planted in the French department of Aveyron in 1995.

Bibliographic references

Bibliography

- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Institut Agro | Montpellier, Marseillan, France.
- Dictionnaire encyclopédique des cépages et de leurs synonymes. P. Galet, 2015, Ed. Libre&Solidaire, France.
- Traité général de viticulture, Ampélographie. P. Viala and V. Vermorel, 1901-1909, Ed. Masson, Paris, France.

Description des clones agréés en France

In this section, the list of certified clones is given. Information on clone conservatories is also provided.

  • Clone number
  • Brand
  • Origin

    Region, department or winegrowing region in which the “clone mother plant” was identified and selected.

  • Selection

    Body or bodies which selected the clone. In France, clonal selection is the responsibility of the selection organisations (themselves accredited by the ministry in charge of agriculture), usually in close collaboration with a technical partner working in a winegrowing region. For clones certified after 1999, the name of the partner or partners who took part in the selection work is also included. (NB: CA = Chamber of Agriculture).

  • Year of approval

    Year in which the clone was certified by the FranceAgriMer board further to a proposal by the Vine section of the CTPS (Permanent Technical Committee for Plant Selection).

  • Agronomic Reference

    Region, department or winegrowing region in which the agronomic and technological data were collected.

  • Surface in multiplication

    Surface area in hectares (ha) of stock nurseries used for propagation for the year under consideration (in brackets), which allows the available potential to be evaluated. Clones with a surface area of between 0.01 and 0.10 ha are shown as <0.10 ha. Clones of limited dissemination, but for which we have technical data, are shown as <0.01 ha. Other clones are given as “low-dissemination clone”, which means that the clone has been certified only recently or has not been propagated. In both cases, only the initial material is planted in the selection centres.

  • B
  • 220

  • Maine-et-Loire

  • ENTAV

  • 1973

  • Loire-Valley

  • 6.01 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility medium

  • Production level medium

  • Cluster weight medium

  • Susceptibility to Botrytis low to medium

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness high

  • Total acidity medium

  • Oenological skills fine, aromatic and powerful wines

  • Other information

  • General note less compact bunches. Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained.

  • B
  • 278

  • Maine-et-Loire

  • ENTAV

  • 1973

  • Loire-Valley

  • 0.26 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility medium

  • Production level medium

  • Cluster weight medium

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness medium

  • Oenological skills well-balanced wines of good typicity

  • B
  • 416

  • Maine-et-Loire

  • ENTAV

  • 1976

  • Loire-Valley

  • 0.53 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility medium

  • Production level high

  • Cluster weight high

  • Berry size medium to high

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness low

  • Oenological skills representative wines of the variety

  • B
  • 417

  • Maine-et-Loire

  • ENTAV

  • 1976

  • Loire-Valley

  • -

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility medium

  • Production level high

  • Cluster weight high

  • Berry size medium to high

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness low

  • Oenological skills representative wines of the variety

  • B
  • 624

  • Maine-et-Loire

  • ENTAV

  • 1979

  • Loire-Valley

  • 0.69 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility medium to high

  • Production level medium to high

  • Cluster weight medium

  • Susceptibility to Botrytis medium to high

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness medium

  • Total acidity low to medium

  • Oenological skills representative wines of the variety

  • Other information

  • General note slightly irregular production

  • B
  • 880

  • Maine-et-Loire

  • ENTAV

  • 1986

  • Loire-Valley

  • 4.41 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility low to medium

  • Production level medium

  • Cluster weight medium to high

  • Susceptibility to Botrytis low to medium

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness high

  • Oenological skills powerful, fat and full-bodied wines

  • Other information

  • General note clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained

  • B
  • 982

  • Maine-et-Loire

  • ENTAV

  • 1992

  • Loire-Valley

  • 2.00 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility medium

  • Production level medium

  • Cluster weight medium

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness high

  • Oenological skills full-bodied and powerful dry wines

  • Other information

  • General note early maturity clone, appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained.

  • B
  • 1018

  • Maine-et-Loire

  • ENTAV

  • 1994

  • Loire-Valley

  • 1.72 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility medium

  • Production level medium

  • Cluster weight medium

  • Susceptibility to Botrytis medium to high

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness high

  • Oenological skills suitable for the production of semi-sweet wines

  • Other information

  • General note early maturity clone, appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained.

  • B
  • 1206

  • Maine-et-Loire

  • INRA - IFV

  • 2014

  • Loire-Valley

  • -

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility high

  • Production level low to medium

  • Cluster weight low

  • Susceptibility to Botrytis low to medium

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness high

  • Total acidity medium

  • Aromatic intensity medium to high

  • Oenological skills suitable for the production of quality semi-sweet wines

  • Other information

  • General note clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained. Less compact bunches and less susceptible to grey rot

  • B
  • 1207

  • Maine-et-Loire

  • INRA - IFV

  • 2014

  • Loire-Valley

  • -

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility medium

  • Production level low

  • Cluster weight low

  • Susceptibility to Botrytis medium

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness high

  • Total acidity medium

  • Aromatic intensity high

  • Oenological skills suitable for the production of quality semi-sweet wines

  • Other information

  • General note slightly earlier clone, appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained.

  • B
  • 1208

  • Maine-et-Loire

  • INRA - IFV

  • 2014

  • Loire-Valley

  • -

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility medium to high

  • Production level medium

  • Cluster weight low to medium

  • Susceptibility to Botrytis medium

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness high

  • Total acidity medium

  • Aromatic intensity high

  • Oenological skills suitable for the production of quality dry wines

  • Other information

  • General note slightly earlier clone, appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained.

  • B
  • 1209

  • Maine-et-Loire

  • INRA - IFV

  • 2014

  • Loire-Valley

  • -

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility low

  • Production level medium

  • Cluster weight medium to high

  • Susceptibility to Botrytis medium

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness medium

  • Total acidity medium to high

  • Aromatic intensity medium

  • Oenological skills suitable for the production of quality dry wines

  • Other information

  • General note later maturity clone with an average production level. Good results during early years.

  • B
  • 1286

  • Val-de-Loire

  • Pépinières Mercier - IFV

  • 2018

  • -

  • -

  • B
  • 1348

  • Maine-et-Loire

  • Pépinières Mercier - IFV

  • 2020

  • -

  • -