Mourvèdre

N

Wine grape variety.

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Origin

The geographical origin of the variety is specified or, if this is not possible, the area in which it is traditionally cultivated. The genetic origin of the variety is also indicated whenever it is known from hybridiser data or from genetic analyses published or obtained by the teams at INRAE in Montpellier (UMR AGAP) and Vassal-Montpellier Grapevine Biological Resources Centre (CRB-Vigne).

This variety is originally from Spain and was probably introduced in France at the end of the Middle Ages.

Use

This information indicates the normal and statutory use for the grapes.

Wine grape variety.

Name of the variety in France

Name under which the variety is officially registered in the catalogue of grapevine varieties in France and under which it may be propagated and disseminated.

Mourvèdre

Synonymy

Recognised alternative names that may be used to identify the propagation material of the variety in France or in other member countries of the European Union.

In the European Union, Mourvèdre is officially called by other names: Mataro (Cyprus) and Monastrell (Spain). These synonyms are officially recognized in France regarding plant propagation material.

Regulatory data

This information indicates on which list the variety is registered (A or B), whether it is classified for wine grapes, and in which member countries of the European Union the variety is also officially registered (for more information, see the "Legislation" menu.

In France, Mourvèdre is officially listed in the "Catalogue of vine varieties" on the A list and classified. This variety is also listed in the catalogues of other Member States of the European Union: Crotia, Cyprus, Greece, Malta and Spain.

Evolution of cultivated areas in France

The figures provided are taken from vineyard land registers (IVCC, ONIVIT, ONIVINS), general agricultural censuses (SCEES-INSEE) and the current computerised vineyard register (DGDDI, FAM). Regional vine planting data is available on the following site: https://visionet.franceagrimer.fr/Pages/DonneesInteractivesDocs.aspx?sousmenu=observatoire%20de%20la%20viticulture.

Year
ha

1958

617

1968

857

1979

3146

1988

5608

1998

7249

2008

9164

2018

9149

Éléments de description

Only the principal ampelographic elements enabling the varieties to be characterised and identified are provided. They are presented according to the descriptor code recognised by the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV), the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV), the Community Plant Variety Office (OCVV) and Bioversity International (for more information, see the "Ampelographic glossary" menu). The photographs of leaves and grapes were taken in natural conditions, on the vine, in very similar situations in terms of growing conditions (sandy soil, Mediterranean coast): - Domaine de l'Espiguette (IFV), Le Grau du Roi (Gard), - Domaine de Vassal (INRAE), Marseillan (Hérault), - La Gaillarde Campus (Institut Agro | Montpellier SupAgro), Montpellier (Hérault). Only a few photographs, including the tips of bunches, were taken in other conditions.

The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot with a very high density of prostrate hairs,
- the young leaves with bronze spots,
- the shoots with red colored internodes and an erect bearing,
- the circular adult leaves, entire or with three lobes, with a open lyre-shaped petiole sinus, large teeth, moderate compared to their width at the base with straight sides, a moderate anthocyanin coloration of veins, a flat leaf blade, and on the lower side of the leaves, a high density of erect and prostrate hairs,
- the round-shaped berries.

Genetic profile

The genetic profile of the variety is provided for the 9 microsatellite markers (or SSR markers) selected under the European programme GrapeGen06 (http://www.eu-vitis.de/index.php) and by the OIV. The absolute size values of the alleles may vary slightly from one laboratory to another, but the relative differences between the two alleles of one single microsatellite are constant. The genetic analyses were conducted by the INRAE Montpellier team (UMR AGAP) and the IFV’s Plant Material Centre.

Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32

Allele 1

131

223

249

176

188

252

240

243

239

Allele 2

149

238

249

186

204

262

262

257

255

Cultivation and agronomic skills

The data on suitability are the result of field observations or, if none are available, of bibliography mining and the study of bibliographic references.

Mourvèdre is a demanding variety and its growing is delicate. With its erect bearing and acrotonic nature, it must be pruned short. As such, it can be trained in cordon, with reduced trellis or in open gobelet. Care must be taken to maintain the non abundant foliage, that is moderately effective. Trimming must be avoided to limit the presence of large size grappillons, which then represent a bothersome competition. Production per vine trunk must be low to prevent risk of depletion. This variety sometimes demonstrates alternating fertility. The pedo-climatic requirements of Mourvèdre are very demanding. This variety appears well adapted to limestone soils deep enough to allow a limited but regular water supply. Potassium and magnesium supplies (K/Mg) must also be balanced in order to prevent the appearance of deficencies. Finally, the main limiting factor for growing this late variety (budburst and grape maturity), is that the temperatures at the moment of grape maturation must be very high (especially minimum temperatures) to enable proper ripening and a sufficient accumulation of sugar in the berries. This variety is thus reserved for the hottest southern areas and the best exposed.

Susceptibility to Diseases and Pests

These remarks are also the result of field observations or, if none are available, of bibliography mining and study of bibliographic references.

Mourvèdre is sensitive to mites, vine leafhoppers, esca and sour rot. On the other hand, it is generally not very so susceptible to grey rot and it resists well againt phomopsis.

Phenology

The growth stages indicated are the result of obsrvations made at the Domaine de Vassal Estate where the set of these varieties form a collection. The results are indicated compared to the Chasselas vine variety as a reference in order to make comparisons between years and different sites. As such, for information purposes, the dates for the Chasselas B growth stage at Domaine de Vassal are as follows: - Bud burst, 21 March (average over 50 years) - Grape maturity, 14 August (average over 50 years)

Bud burst: 13 days after Chasselas.
Grape maturity: late-season, 4 weeks and a half after Chasselas.

Technological potential

The size of grape clusters and berries indicated are based on the following scales: - Wine grape varieties Size : Very small Bunch (g) : ≤ 100 Berry (g) : 1 - Table grape varieties Bunch (g) : 150 Berry (g) : 2 - Wine grape varieties Size : Small Bunch (g) : 100 - 200 Berry (g) : 1,5 - 2 - Table grape varieties Bunch (g) : 150 - 250 Berry (g) : 2 - 3,5 - Wine grape varieties Size : Moderate Bunch (g) : 200 - 250 Berry (g) : 2 - 2,5 - Table grape varieties Bunch (g) : 250 - 400 Berry (g) : 3,5 - 5,5 - Wine grape varieties Size : Large Bunch (g) : 250 - 400 Berry (g) : 2,5 - 3,5 - Table grape varieties Bunch (g) : 400 - 700 Berry (g) : 5,5 - 8 - Wine grape varieties Size : Very large Bunch (g) : 400 Berry (g) : 3,5 - Table grape varieties Bunch (g) : 700 Berry (g) : 8 Remarks concerning the characteristics of the wines are generally based on tastings organised by juries of professionals.

Mourvèdre's bunches are medium to large and the berries are medium in size. The color potential of this variety is moderate with sometimes a lack of acidity. Nevertheless, Mourvèdre can produce very high quality, aromatic, tannic and structured wines, suitable for ageing and maturing in wood barrels, provided that the grape maturity is sufficient (12 natural degrees minimum) and that the production per vine trunk is limited.

Clonal selection in France

In this section, the list of certified clones is given. Information on clone conservatories is also provided.

The fourteen certified Mourvèdre clones carry the numbers 233, 234, 244, 245, 247, 248, 249, 369, 448, 449, 450, 520, 1069 and 1215. A conservatory of almost 100 clones has been planted in the wine-growing region of Bandol (French department of Var) since 2004.

Bibliographic references

Bibliography

- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Institut Agro | Montpellier, Marseillan, France.
- Dictionnaire encyclopédique des cépages et de leurs synonymes. P. Galet, 2015, Ed. Libre&Solidaire, France.
- Traité général de viticulture, Ampélographie. P. Viala and V. Vermorel, 1901-1909, Ed. Masson, Paris, France.

Description of clones approved in France

In this section, the list of certified clones is given. Information on clone conservatories is also provided.

  • Clone number
  • Brand
  • Origin

    Region, department or winegrowing region in which the “clone mother plant” was identified and selected.

  • Selection

    Body or bodies which selected the clone. In France, clonal selection is the responsibility of the selection organisations (themselves accredited by the ministry in charge of agriculture), usually in close collaboration with a technical partner working in a winegrowing region. For clones certified after 1999, the name of the partner or partners who took part in the selection work is also included. (NB: CA = Chamber of Agriculture).

  • Year of approval

    Year in which the clone was certified by the FranceAgriMer board further to a proposal by the Vine section of the CTPS (Permanent Technical Committee for Plant Selection).

  • Agronomic Reference

    Region, department or winegrowing region in which the agronomic and technological data were collected.

  • Surface in multiplication

    Surface area in hectares (ha) of stock nurseries used for propagation for the year under consideration (in brackets), which allows the available potential to be evaluated. Clones with a surface area of between 0.01 and 0.10 ha are shown as <0.10 ha. Clones of limited dissemination, but for which we have technical data, are shown as <0.01 ha. Other clones are given as “low-dissemination clone”, which means that the clone has been certified only recently or has not been propagated. In both cases, only the initial material is planted in the selection centres.

  • N
  • 233

  • Var

  • ENTAV

  • 1973

  • Languedoc;
    Provence;
    Rhône-Valley

  • 0.46 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility medium

  • Production level medium

  • Cluster weight medium to high

  • Vigor high

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness medium

  • Oenological skills representative wines of the variety

  • N
  • 234

  • Drôme

  • ENTAV

  • 1973

  • Languedoc;
    Provence;
    Rhône-Valley

  • 2.28 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility medium to high

  • Production level medium

  • Cluster weight medium to high

  • Vigor medium to high

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness medium

  • Total acidity medium to high

  • Oenological skills representative wines of the variety

  • N
  • 244

  • Aude

  • INRA

  • 1973

  • Languedoc;
    Provence;
    Rhône-Valley

  • 2.25 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility high

  • Production level high

  • Cluster weight high

  • Vigor high

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness medium

  • Oenological skills representative wines of the variety

  • N
  • 245

  • Non précisée

  • INRA

  • 1973

  • Languedoc

  • 0.66 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Production level medium to high

  • Technological Data

  • Oenological skills representative wines of the variety

  • N
  • 247

  • Aude

  • INRA

  • 1973

  • Languedoc;
    Provence;
    Rhône-Valley

  • 0.40 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility medium

  • Production level medium to high

  • Cluster weight high

  • Vigor high

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness medium

  • Oenological skills representative wines of the variety

  • N
  • 248

  • Non précisée

  • INRA

  • 1973

  • Languedoc

  • 0.37 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Production level medium to high

  • Technological Data

  • Oenological skills representative wines of the variety

  • N
  • 249

  • Aude

  • INRA

  • 1973

  • Languedoc;
    Provence;
    Rhône-Valley

  • 1.86 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility low to medium

  • Production level medium

  • Cluster weight medium

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness medium to high

  • Oenological skills representative wines of the variety

  • Other information

  • General note clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained

  • N
  • 369

  • Espagne

  • ENTAV

  • 1975

  • Languedoc;
    Provence;
    Rhône-Valley

  • 10.70 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility low to medium

  • Production level low to medium

  • Cluster weight low to medium

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness medium to high

  • Color potential high

  • Total acidity medium

  • Tannic structure medium to high

  • Oenological skills well-balanced wines, representative of the variety

  • Other information

  • General note clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained

  • N
  • 448

  • Non précisée

  • ENTAV

  • 1976

  • Languedoc;
    Provence;
    Rhône-Valley

  • 0.34 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility medium

  • Production level high

  • Cluster weight high

  • Vigor low

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness medium

  • Oenological skills representative wines of the variety

  • Other information

  • Agronomic note irregular production

  • N
  • 449

  • Non précisée

  • ENTAV

  • 1976

  • Provence

  • 1.20 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility medium to high

  • Production level medium to high

  • Cluster weight medium

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness medium

  • Oenological skills balanced wines but that can lack acidity

  • N
  • 450

  • Non précisée

  • ENTAV

  • 1976

  • Languedoc;
    Provence;
    Rhône-Valley

  • 0.04 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility medium

  • Production level medium to high

  • Cluster weight high

  • Vigor low

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness medium

  • Oenological skills representative wines of the variety

  • N
  • 520

  • Charente

  • ENTAV

  • 1976

  • Provence

  • 0.47 ha

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility high

  • Production level high

  • Cluster weight medium

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness low

  • Total acidity high

  • Oenological skills representative wines of the variety

  • N
  • 1069

  • Espagne

  • CA 83 - ENTAV

  • 2003

  • Provence

  • -

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility low to medium

  • Production level low to medium

  • Cluster weight low to medium

  • Vigor low

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness high

  • Color potential high

  • Total acidity medium

  • Tannic structure medium to high

  • Oenological skills aromatic wines with a good tannic structure

  • Other information

  • General note clone less productive and appreciated in tasting

  • N
  • 1215

  • Espagne

  • CA 83 - IFV

  • 2014

  • Provence

  • -

  • Agronomic Data

  • Fertility low to medium

  • Production level low to medium

  • Cluster weight low to medium

  • Berry size medium

  • Technological Data

  • Sugar richness high

  • Total acidity medium

  • Aromatic intensity high

  • Oenological skills balanced rosé wines with high aromatic intensity

  • Other information

  • General note clone suitable for the production of rosé wines. Appreciated in tasting (red fruits, floral and sweet notes).